145.     The lesson of the mistranslation of Genesis 3:16 is so very important that we represent the false rendering of teshuqa again, by means of a Chart which will readily fix its history upon the mind.  (To see the chart click here)

The scale running across the middle of the Chart is cut up into centuries by perpendicular lines. All to the left of the cross is B. C. in time; to the right A. D. One space of the scale, the bottom, numbers centuries, and gives the exact date of versions, so far as known; all the other dates are merely approximate, and some very uncertain. The top space of the scale represents the translation of teshuqa in Genesis 3:16, as we indicate at the left-hand end of the scale; the space next below gives the translation of the word in Genesis 4:7, and the third space, the translation in Solomon's Song 7:10—the only three passages employing the word. The translation of the word is carried along, throughout the history of the centuries, beginning with the first version of the Bible, the Septuagint, at 285 B. C. and ending with the Revised English Version A. D. 1884. The book up in the left-hand corner represents the original Hebrew text of our Bible, sending down light from above for us in this word teshuqa; the books below the scale represent the Talmud with the Targum sending up a perverted, immoral teaching from the "Ten Curses of Eve" (see pars. 105-106).

The blue balls represent the sense of teshuqa as "turning" in one form or another; the red balls the sense "lust." Where neither sense is employed in a version, we use another shape, and give the translation just under it, at the bottom of the scale.

At the point where this immoral teaching begins to find an entrance into the Bible (but not in the first but second passage, Genesis 4:7), in the second century, are three versions of the Greek made by Jews and Judaizers with the express object of emphasizing the teachings of the Jews, where they differed from the Christian teachings. We represent these by little wedges, driven into the place they occupy, on purpose to force an entrance for rabbinical teaching. Jerome who translated the Latin Vulgate Version, was instructed for his work by rabbis, and shows the same influence. Now count the blue balls, and see how they were universally used until those wedges were driven in to break up the continuity. Note how a thin red line obtains entrance at this point, and gradually expands until the blue is entirely obliterated, in the Authorized and Revised Versions of the English.

Notice particularly that this teaching,—"thy desire shall be to thy husband," first got full expression through an Italian Dominican Monk, Pagnino (written Pagninus in Latin). Shortly after his version, several English versions appeared; and following his reading they use the word "lust," softened to "desire" in the later English versions. What do we know of his translations? Richard Simon, quoted in the Biographie Universelle, declares: "Pagnino has too much neglected the ancient versions of Scripture to attach himself to the teachings of the rabbis,"—just what we should have expected to learn. Following him, to the neglect of ancient versions, the English translators have not, in regard to Genesis 3:16, set forth the proper sense of teshuqa.

Observe that among the names of the versions above the scale, three are printed in capital letters,—the Septuagint, the Syriac and the Vulgate. Among scholars, the evidence of the exact meaning of a Hebrew word is generally considered conclusive, if these three versions agree, because, in the making, it is not known that they had any influence upon each other. These three versions agree on "turning" for the third passage, and the Septuagint and Syriac agree on all three passages. So much evidence as this is practically conclusive as to the true sense of teshuqa.

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